Before the Keys

Frederick's Professional Baseball Legacy is Rooted in the Hustlers

By James Rada Jr. | Photography by Photos courtesy Blue Ridge League website and Arcadia Publishing | Posted on 04.29.13 – Frederick Scene, History, People & Places

On Thursday morning, May 27, 1915, H.A. Albaugh showed his ardent love of baseball in two ways. First, he drove 42 miles over stone and hard-packed dirt roads from his home in Westminster to Frederick in order to see the Frederick Hustlers make their professional baseball debut. The drive took him about two hours and before leaving home, he bet a friend that Frederick would win its opening day game. If the Hustlers lost, Albaugh promised to walk home.

It was a daring wager, and the second way he proved his love of baseball. The Hustlers were playing the Martinsburg Champs, who had topped the defunct Tri-City League the previous year. Albaugh and the citizens of Frederick had chosen their champion, though, and the Hustlers’ successful fielding and laps around the bases that May afternoon saved Albaugh some shoe leather.

Although baseball came to Frederick County near the beginning of the 20th century, until 1915 you could only watch town teams compete against each other. The semi-pro Sunset League formed in 1907 and included a team from Frederick. The league, which was named because its games started in the late afternoon, folded in 1911. Then, in 1914, the team that eventually became the Frederick Hustlers was made a part of the Tri-City League with Hagerstown and Martinsburg, W.Va.

As the 1914 season was winding down, Charles Boyer, a former president of the South Atlantic League, moved back to the Hagerstown area. He watched the town teams playing each other and saw there was talent among the players that deserved to be rewarded. Boyer bought the Hagerstown team and set to work forming a new league that would soon be named the Blue Ridge League. He wanted it to be a professional league, which meant a minimum of six teams.

“The Frederick team had been called the Black Sox in the Tri-City League, but as the Blue Ridge League started, they had a very fast team so they became the Hustlers,” says Mark Ziegler who runs the website

Boyer started with the three teams of the Tri-City League and was able to convince Chambersburg and Gettysburg in Pennsylvania to field teams. While the league certainly had enough teams to play the 1915 season, it was short the needed number to petition the National Commission (now the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues) for professional status. Then, in March of 1915, Hanover joined the league and the Blue Ridge League was granted Class D recognition— the lowest class of professional status in baseball.

“It was entry-level baseball,” says Robert Savitt, author of The Blue Ridge League and a Myersville resident. “Even though the players got paid, they still needed to have other jobs.” As the teams set about recruiting players, they had little to offer despite the fact they were professional teams. Frederick lost the chance of having legendary player Ty Cobb’s younger brother play for the Hustlers because the team had already reached its $500 a month salary cap, according to The Frederick Post.

Opening Day

With the introduction of professional baseball to the region, towns caught baseball fever. “Not a thing has been left undone to make the big day of the advent of Frederick into organized baseball one long to be remembered…” The Frederick Post reported on May 27, 1915, opening day for the season and the league. Frederick’s mayor and aldermen had declared the day a half-holiday with most businesses closing their doors in the afternoon so employees and customers could go out to Agricultural Field to watch the Hustlers play the Champs. The day’s events kicked off with a parade at 1:30 p.m. A band struck up It’s a Long Way to Tipperary, followed by Frederick Police Chief George Hoffman riding horseback and most of the police force marching. The parade continued with 20 cars and six carriages carrying the players and other officials, including Mayor Lewis Fraley, Alderman Lloyd Culler and Alderman Henry Abbott.

The parade traveled to the fountain on North Market Street, down Market Street to the Square Corner and then out to Agricultural Park where the Fairgrounds Board had built the field in 1903 at the southwest corner of the fairgrounds’ property. An estimated 3,000 fans turned out to see the 3:30 p.m. game that Frederick won with a final score of 14-3.

“The game was a slaughter from the time Frederick began scoring in the second round until the last Martinsburg player was out in the ninth and by the time the sixth had arrived the fans had lost interest,” reported The Frederick Post. It seemed the Hustlers were on fire. From the opening day victory, they went on to win 17 of their first 20 games of the season.

Frederick Players Who Made It to the Majors
Robert P. Savitt, who wrote the book The Blue Ridge League, says that he can count at least 100 Major League players who played for some time in the league. Some of the ones from Frederick’s teams include:

  1. Clyde Barnhart (1915) played with the Pirates, 1920-1928
  2. Lew Malone (1915) played with the Athletics and Robins, 1915-1919
  3. Bill Lamar (1915) played with the Athletics, Yankees, Red Sox and Robins, 1917-1927
  4. Chick Fullis (1924-1926) played with the Giants, Phillies and Cardinals, 1928-1936)
  5. Rollie Hemsley (1925-1927) played with the Browns, Indians, Pirates, Yankees and Cubs, 1928-1947
  6. Ray Gardner (1920, 1922) played with the Indians, 1929-1930
  7. Jimmie DeShong (1928) played with the Senators, Yankees and Athletics, 1932-1939
  8. Joe Vosmik (1929) played with the Indians, Red Sox, Browns, Dodgers and Senators, 1930-1944
  9. Milt Galatzer (1930) played with the Indians and Reds, 1933-1939


City Team Years
Chambersburg, Pa. MaroonsYoung Yanks 1915-1917, 1920-19281929-1930
Cumberland Colts 1917-1918
Frederick HustlersChamps


1915, 1917, 1920-19281916


Gettysburg, Pa. PatriotsPonies 19151916-1917
Hagerstown BluesTerriers



19151916-1918, 1922-1923



Hanover, Pa. HornetsRaiders 19151916-1917, 1920-1929
Martinsburg, W.Va. ChampsBlue Sox


19151916-1917, 1922-1929


Piedmont, W.Va./Westernport, Md. Drybugs 1918
Waynesboro, Pa. Red BirdsVillagers 1920, 1928-19301921-1927


Playing the Big Boys

As the season progressed, the Hustlers appeared unstoppable. However, on Aug. 31, 1915, they were stopped quickly and decisively.

The new professional baseball league had caught the attention of major league coaches like Jack Dunn and Connie Mack, who were on the lookout for new talent. Mack had already stolen away one of the Hustlers named Lew “Cy” Malone.

“Cy Malone was an infielder for the Hustlers before Mack took him up to the majors,” says Ziegler.

On Aug. 31, Malone, Mack and the Athletics came to Frederick to play the Hustlers. Turnout at Agricultural Field was back to its opening day level. Frederick took an early lead in the game, but, “A fusillade of extra-base hits in the ninth inning of yesterday’s great game at Agricultural Park, enabled the Philadelphia Athletics to carry off a victory,” according to The Frederick Daily News. The final score was 7-3. The newspaper noted that Malone played well and “looked like a big leaguer from every angle.”


By mid-August, the Hustlers had clinched the first pennant for the Blue Ridge League with six games left on the schedule.

“They have obtained such a lead in the last month that it will not be necessary to play off the several postponed and tie games,” The Frederick Daily News reported.

The Hustlers finished the season with a record of 53-23-1. The team also finished the season with the top hitter and pitcher in the league. Brunswick’s Bobbie Orrison was an outfielder with a .341 batting average. Bill King of Jefferson tossed 17 wins.

It had also been a financially successful season. The Frederick Post noted the following year that, “The fans were joyous, we had a winning club, the pitchers and the best hitter was also a member of the Hustlers. Yes, we were proud of our team and at the end of the season when the receipts were totaled it was found as already expected that the gate receipts of the Frederick club were far in advance of any other.”

For Hustlers’ catcher, Poke Whalen, the championship was even more important. He not only won a pennant, he won his wife. Nellie Wallet of Baltimore had promised to marry him if the Hustlers won the championship.

“This cheered Poke on and after the pennant was declared Frederick’s property, Poke went to Baltimore and had some minister to declare that Miss Wallet now belonged to him,” The Frederick Post reported.

Recapturing the Magic

However, as the Hustlers tried to maintain their championship title the following season, they faltered.

Though Martinsburg’s 1915 team had been the Champs, the Hustlers took the name for 1916, which seemed to set off a slew of name changes for the teams. The new name was no help. The Frederick Champs finished the season at 46-51. They took it as a bad sign and changed back to the Hustlers for 1917. However, Frederick wouldn’t produce another championship team until 1921.

Major League teams recruited players from the Blue Ridge League, but the teams remained independent. As the Blue Ridge League teams struggled financially, some dropped out of the league and others had to be added in order to maintain professional status.

In the late 1920s, the teams began agreeing to Major League ownership and affiliation. Not only would the Major League team financially support the small Blue Ridge League teams, they would also lend the prestige of their names. “The Blue Ridge League was the pioneer in the formation of the farm system,” Savitt says.

In 1929, the Cleveland Indians purchased the Hustlers and the team changed its name to the Warriors, which was a better match with the parent team. The Indians had already plucked a Hustler from Frederick (Ray Gardner) years earlier and were hoping to develop more players in the future. The Indians even came to Frederick to play an exhibition game with the Warriors in June 1929. “Having the Major League teams play exhibition games really generated fan interest,” says Savitt.

Although the Blue Ridge League was on the lowest rung of professional baseball, it had a lasting impact on baseball in addition to introducing the farm system to the sport. The league also pioneered playing night games under bright lights and playing games on Sunday. The latter actually led to players being arrested for violating Blue Laws banning such activity on the Sabbath.

The End of the League

Despite the support of Major League ownership, the Blue Ridge Teams continued to struggle.

“With the stock market crash in 1929, a lot of Major League team owners lost money and could no longer support the Blue Ridge teams and the league never came back from that,” Ziegler says.

The longest-running Class D baseball league ended its run on Feb. 10, 1930. A few attempts were made to revive the league in the 1930s and 1940s, but these leagues lasted only a few seasons and were never more than semi-pro.

The Blue Ridge League’s legacy is not only the lasting changes that it introduced to baseball, but also the many Major League players who got their professional start in the league. This includes Baseball Hall of Famers pitcher Lefty Grove who played with Martinsburg in 1920, outfielder Hack Wilson who played with Martinsburg 1921-1922 and umpire Bill McGowan who was with the league in 1917.

Find Out More

The Blue Ridge League by Robert P. Savitt (available online at

The Blue Ridge League website: